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Monday, August 1

  1. page potatoes edited ... The Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) is a tuberous, starchy crop. The Solanum group of perennial pla…
    ...
    The Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) is a tuberous, starchy crop. The Solanum group of perennial plants. Today, the genus contains over 1500-2000 species, including tomatotes and eggplant. The potato is a member of the Solanaceae family. This family includes flowering plants, mostly agricultural crops. It is an angiosperm which makes it also a eudicot. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato) The plant is about 20-40 inches high with a spiral leaf arrangement. Leaves are about 20-30 cm long including a terminal leaflet and two to four leaflets. The potato is considered one of the main food crops in the world. It differs from others because of the "tuber". The tuber, which is the swollen end of an underground stem, is the edible part of the plant. Potatoes appearance can range in color, shape, and size. Size is affected by the stoloons, which are extended on the ends of the underground stems. Here is where the size and shape of the potato are formed. Different tubers evolve on the stoloons. The skin of the potato can also range from a light brown to a dark purple and the inside of the potato can be either a yellow or white- but also a purple.
    (potato flower) {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Potato_flowers.jpg}
    ...
    adaptive characteristics.
    {https://sites.google.com/site/iemgec/_/rsrc/1297791178808/final-project/maria-a/samerica_95.jpg?height=400&width=306} {https://sites.google.com/site/iemgec/_/rsrc/1297806525746/final-project/maria-a/Potato_High_Nutrition.png?height=206&width=400}
    Types of Potatoes:
    ...
    processors that make french fries, chips, dehydrated potatoes, and other products. The other 50% goes to markets and are sold as is. This statistic is incredible because it
    shows how wide the use of potatoes is.
    ...
    potato demand.
    {https://sites.google.com/site/iemgec/_/rsrc/1297810618744/final-project/maria-a/World_Potato_Production_2008.png?height=247&width=400}
    The Sweet potato: An up and coming product in the potato market is the sweet potato. These potatoes are less starchy, healthier subsitute for regualr potatoes. US Sweet potato farmers are focusing now on Europe. Europeans, who are much more health conscious, see the sweet potato as a vitamin packed lower cholesterol option. US sweet potato exports from 2005-2009 doubled to over 51.4 million. This is a great stride for the potato market, because 10 years ago Europe wasn't even aware of the sweet potato.
    (view changes)
    10:45 am
  2. page potatoes edited ... The Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) is a tuberous, starchy crop. The Solanum group of perennial pla…
    ...
    The Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) is a tuberous, starchy crop. The Solanum group of perennial plants. Today, the genus contains over 1500-2000 species, including tomatotes and eggplant. The potato is a member of the Solanaceae family. This family includes flowering plants, mostly agricultural crops. It is an angiosperm which makes it also a eudicot. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato) The plant is about 20-40 inches high with a spiral leaf arrangement. Leaves are about 20-30 cm long including a terminal leaflet and two to four leaflets. The potato is considered one of the main food crops in the world. It differs from others because of the "tuber". The tuber, which is the swollen end of an underground stem, is the edible part of the plant. Potatoes appearance can range in color, shape, and size. Size is affected by the stoloons, which are extended on the ends of the underground stems. Here is where the size and shape of the potato are formed. Different tubers evolve on the stoloons. The skin of the potato can also range from a light brown to a dark purple and the inside of the potato can be either a yellow or white- but also a purple.
    (potato flower) {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Potato_flowers.jpg}
    ...
    on it. The potato has certain qualities that allow it to grow in any environment. These qualities include and are not limited to: surviving frost, resistent to diurinal conditions, and having over 5000 different varities of with different adaptive characteristics.
    {https://sites.google.com/site/iemgec/_/rsrc/1297791178808/final-project/maria-a/samerica_95.jpg?height=400&width=306} {https://sites.google.com/site/iemgec/_/rsrc/1297806525746/final-project/maria-a/Potato_High_Nutrition.png?height=206&width=400}

    Types of Potatoes:
    {http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3290/2893041706_978ee0d76a.jpg}
    ...
    processors that make french fries, chips, dehydrated potatoes, and other products. The other 50% goes to markets and are sold as is. This statistic is incredible because it
    shows how wide the use of potatoes is.
    World Potato Distribution: From a world standpoint, developing countries are the largest suppliers of potatoes. This is not always the best thing, because if the crop fails, then this could be devastating to a nation's economy. The following graph shows potato production in 2008. The US is the 4th top producer of potatoes, which goes to show there is heavy reliance on other countries for our potato demand.
    {https://sites.google.com/site/iemgec/_/rsrc/1297810618744/final-project/maria-a/World_Potato_Production_2008.png?height=247&width=400}

    The Sweet potato: An up and coming product in the potato market is the sweet potato. These potatoes are less starchy, healthier subsitute for regualr potatoes. US Sweet potato farmers are focusing now on Europe. Europeans, who are much more health conscious, see the sweet potato as a vitamin packed lower cholesterol option. US sweet potato exports from 2005-2009 doubled to over 51.4 million. This is a great stride for the potato market, because 10 years ago Europe wasn't even aware of the sweet potato.
    {http://www.self.com/fooddiet/blogs/nutritiondata/sweet_potato.gif}
    ...
    http://bangordailynews.com/2011/03/12/health/federal-government-programs-shun-the-potato-erroneously-say-legislators/
    http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Potatoes/
    https://sites.google.com/site/iemgec/final-project/maria-a
    Pictures
    http://www.wisconsincentral.net/LandTOC/Land/PotatoHarvest.html
    (view changes)
    10:44 am

Sunday, July 31

  1. msg Suggestion message posted Suggestion Group 2, I have a minor correction to be made. "this has been a [great] course[!]"…
    Suggestion
    Group 2,

    I have a minor correction to be made.

    "this has been a [great] course[!]"

    It was been a pleasure working with all of you.

    Thanks,
    Miguel
    11:21 pm
  2. msg Suggestion message posted Suggestion Thanks guys, Taylor, I appreciate your honesty, and I have made those corrections recently on my…
    Suggestion
    Thanks guys,

    Taylor, I appreciate your honesty, and I have made those corrections recently on my wiki page.

    Kara and Becca, I thank you for looking at my wiki page and providing some commentary in order to improve my wiki page.

    Group 2, this has been a course, and I do hope to see some of you in Providence College next semester.

    Thanks again,
    Miguel
    11:19 pm
  3. page grapefruit edited ... //Citrus// ×//paradisi// Macfad. (pro sp.) [//maxima// × //sinensis//] – grapefruit Source: h…
    ...
    //Citrus// ×//paradisi// Macfad. (pro sp.) [//maxima// × //sinensis//] – grapefruit
    Source: http://plants.usda.gov
    Grapefruit Plant Description:
    The grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi) is a fruit produced by a subtropical citrus tree belonging to the family Rutaceae, which contains all of the citrus fruits. The fruit is generally believed to be a relatively recent hybrid, probably originating in Barbados, where it was first documented in 1750. It seems to have resulted from a cross between two citrus fruits, the Indonesian Pomelo and the Southeast Asian sweet orange (Mateljan, 2007, p. 390) (Wikipedia: Grapefruit, History). Citrus fruits are generally believed to have originated in Southeast Asia, especially in the area comprising Burma, Northeast India, and Southern China. Because of the many trade routes in the ancient world, citrus cultivation quickly began to spread into the Middle East and Europe. Because of the way citrus fruits apparently radiated out from Southeast Asia, their taxonomy is complicated and the precise number of natural species is still unclear. Many of the named species are hybrids, deliberately produced by artificial selection, and there is genetic evidence that even some of the wild, true-breeding species are of hybrid origins. Indeed, there may have been only four ancestral species in the wild (Wikipedia: Grapefruit, History).
    The Grapefruit Tree:
    The grapefruit tree reaches 15-20 feet on average, occasionally growing up to 45 feet in height. It has a rounded top of spreading branches, and its twigs are normally covered with short, pliable thorns. The leaves are evergreen, ovate in shape, three to six inches long and one and three quarters to three inches wide. The leaves are dark green above, lighter green below, and have rounded teeth along the margins. The leaves also contain minute oil glands. The tree bears small, white dicot flowers, each with four petals, which may appear singly or in clusters in the leaf axils (Grapefruit, Morton, 1987).
    The fruit itself is round to oblate in shape, four to six inches wide, with a smooth rind up to three eighth inches thick. The rind is usually pale yellow, but sometimes exhibits traces of pink. The pulp of the fruit can be nearly whitish (blond), pink, or deep-red, and is divided into eleven to fourteen segments with thin, membranous, bitter-tasting walls. Depending on the color of the pulp, the taste can range in flavor from strongly acidic to sweet-acidic upon maturity. The fruit, sometimes produced in seedless varieties, may contain up to fifty white, elliptical pointed seeds. The number of fruits in a cluster can be anywhere from twelve to twenty (Morton, 1987). Like oranges, lemons, and limes, the grapefruit is a Hesperidium, that is to say, it is technically a berry with a tough leathery outer skin, or rind. The name, Grapefruit, was first used in 1814 and reflected the way the fruit developed on trees in grape-like clusters (Levetin & McMahon, 2007, p. 89, 99).
    Grapefruit Distribution:
    {2005grapefruit_and_pomelo.PNG}
    Presently, the grapefruit is grown in many parts of the world, the top ten producers being the United States (Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California), China, South Africa, Mexico, Syria, Israel, Turkey, India, Argentina, and Cuba. First introduced into the United States in 1823, the grapefruit did not become an important commercial item until the late 19th century, when a wealthy businessman, Chase Atwood, founded the Atwood Grapefruit Company and established the largest grapefruit grove in the world. Here, the first pink variety was discovered in 1906, and red (ruby) variants were subsequently developed using radiation-induced mutations (Wikipedia: Grapefruit, History and Production).
    About one half of the world's total output of grapefruits originates in the United States, and the American grapefruit industry has aggressively pursued global markets through bilateral and multilateral accords. Up to now, the industry has been quite successful by means of this strategy (Thornsbury and Spreen, 2000). World grapefruit production is about four million tons, ninety percent of which is produced by countries in the northern hemisphere such as the United States, Cuba, and Israel. Israel is the second greatest exporter behind the United States. In the southern hemisphere, Argentina is the greatest grapefruit producer yielding about 200,000 tons, with pink and red dominating (Made in Argentina, "World Production of Grapefruit," 2010). The high heat requirement for growing grapefruit severely limits the number of regions capable of producing high quality grapefruits. Because all four states in North America are susceptible to winter freezes, grapefruit supply in the United States has always been vulnerable to weather-related problems linked to frost or freeze conditions. Such conditions can lead to the total death of grapefruit trees, which has led growers in Florida to shift most of their growing sites to the southern part of the state. Most grapefruit trees only begin to yield fruit after three years, so it takes time to recover from the loss of trees. Trees normally produce at peak level for about twenty years (Thornsbury and Spreen, 2000).
    Nutritional Facts about the Grapefruit:
    Grapefruits are extremely nutritious, being especially rich in vitamin C while also containing dietary fiber, potassium, and vitamins A and B-5 (Mateljan, p. 390; George Mateljan Foundation (2007): Grapefruit, paras. 1-3). Grapefruit also has numerous properties very beneficial to human health. The lycopene that accounts for its color is an antioxidant and has been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors. Grapefruit juice itself is ranked as one of the most powerful juices in terms of antioxidant activity. Combined with green tea, grapefruits greatly reduce the risk of prostate cancer in men. Grapefruits also contain pectin, a soluble fiber that reduces LDL’s and slows down the development of atheroscelrosis. In addition, phytonutrients in grapefruits, in particular the limonoids, have been shown in lab studies using animals and human cells to be effective in fighting cancers of the mouth, skin, lung, breast, stomach, and colon. Grapefruit juice also lowers the risk of kidney stones (George Mateljan Foundation: Grapefruit, paras. 4-39). Researchers in Israel have recently found that red and white grapefruits contain powerful antioxidants that significantly reduce cholesterol levels by about fifteen percent and triglyceride levels by seventeen percent. A study conducted by Chinese researchers in 2006 found that Naringenin, a plant compound found in grapefruit, helped repair damaged genetic material in human prostate cancer cells. DNA repair is obviously of extreme importance since it prevents cancer cells from multiplying. The Scripps Clinic in San Diego found that consuming one half of a grapefruit resulted in an average weight loss of 3.6 pounds over a twelve week period ("Grapefruit are Great Fruits," n.d.). Grapefruit is very low in sodium and high in fat-burning enzymes, which helps flush out excess water from the body that is retained from high sodium diets. Grapefruits have also been found to help patients suffering from indigestion since grapefruits are considered a light food. In addition, grapefruits can also increase the activity and production of liver enzymes that help detoxify by eliminating toxic compounds from the body, including carcinogenic substances ("Grapefruit Benefits," 2006). And the list of beneficial just seems to go on and on....
    Wild Card
    (view changes)
    11:16 pm
  4. page Group 2 edited ... Top Ten Picks for Healthiest Fruits and Vegetables {222.jpg} ... and repair. Apples …
    ...
    Top Ten Picks for Healthiest Fruits and Vegetables
    {222.jpg}
    ...
    and repair.
    Apples
    Blueberries
    ...
    Preventative Measures: Although washing produce won't necessarily get rid of all E. coli — especially in leafy greens, which provide many spots for the bacteria to attach themselves to — careful rinsing can remove dirt and reduce the amount of bacteria that may be clinging to the produce. Source: Mayo Clinic
    Citrus Fruits: Safe or Deadly for those on Medications
    ...
    Medical Center (www.urmc.rochester/edu/news/story)(www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story)
    Conclusion
    In summary, one can see that, while certain fruits and vegetables seem genuinely to be healthy, causing few, if any, problems, other normally healthy fruits and vegetables, under the wrong circumstances, can have serious effects on consumers, whether through transmission of serious bacterial infections, interactions with prescribed medications or through the effects of chemical pollution.
    (view changes)
    11:02 pm
  5. page Lotus for Maria edited ... {1.jpg} Diospyros melanoxylon  {images-1.jpeg} Diospyros lotus (Date-plum) {Unknown.jpeg} Di…
    ...
    {1.jpg} Diospyros melanoxylon  {images-1.jpeg} Diospyros lotus (Date-plum) {Unknown.jpeg} Diospyros texana
    Diospyros is a genus that includes 500 or so species. Its species consist of a large varitiety of evergreen and deciduous trees. It comes from the Ebenaceae family of flowering plants. These flowering evergreen plants are most commonly known as ebony or persimmon trees.
    ...
    thrive well.
    Geographic Distribution: Most of the Diospyros species are native to the tropics, however some grow in temperate areas. Diospyros species are important to their native ecosystems that include lowland dry tropical forests. Some of the regions Diospyros species are found in are Hawaii, Caspian Hyrcanian forests, Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests, Louisiade Archipelago rain forests, Madagascar forests, Narmada Valley forests, and New Guinea mangroves.
    {map_of_Diospyros_artanthifolia.jpg} Map of Diospyros Regions {map_of_Diospyros_virginiana.jpg} Map of Diospyros Regions
    Chemical Aspects of: When unripe, the fruit of the plants contain a large amount of tannin. Tannin is a bitter plant that tends to shrink or constrict body tissue. It causes the mouth to become dry and constricted therefore people avoid eating unripe fruit from Diospyros plants.
    {Tannic_acid_industrial_grade.jpg.gif} Tannic Acid
    ...
    is destroyed.
    Diospyros

    Diospyros
    lotus (Date-plum)
    ...
    peaceful apathy.
    In

    In
    the Odyssey,
    ...
    the lotus-eaters.
    "I was driven thence by foul winds for a space of 9 days upon the sea, but on the tenth day we reached the land of the Lotus-eaters, who live on a food that comes from a kind of flower. Here we landed to take in fresh water, and our crews got their mid-day meal on the shore near the ships. When they had eaten and drunk I sent two of my company to see what manner of men the people of the place might be, and they had a third man under them. They started at once, and went about among the Lotus-Eaters, who did them no hurt, but gave them to eat of the lotus, which was so delicious that those who ate of it left off caring about home, and did not even want to go back and say what had happened to them, but were for staying and munching lotus with the Lotus-eaters without thinking further of their return; nevertheless, though they wept bitterly I forced them back to the ships and made them fast under the benches. Then I told the rest to go on board at once, lest any of them should taste of the lotus and leave off wanting to get home, so they took their places and smote the grey sea with their oars."
    There is controversy over which exact 'lotus' the Odyssey refers to to because the Greek word 'lotos' refers to several plants. However one of the proposed species includes the Diospyros lotus, also known as the date-plum. The Diospyros lotus grow sweet edible persimmon fruit called the date-plum. The date-plum is sometimes referred to the "fruit of the gods" or "natures candy."
    References:
    “Date-plum” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Date-plum>
    “Diospyros lotus” Plants For A Future. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Diospyros+lotus>
    “Land of the Lotus Eaters” Web. 30 July 2011. <http://members.tripod.com/shs_odyssey/lotuseaters.htm>
    “Lotus-eaters” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus-eaters>
    “Tannic acid” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 July 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tannic_acid>

    (view changes)
    9:46 pm
  6. page Lotus for Maria edited ... {1.jpg} Diospyros melanoxylon  {images-1.jpeg} Diospyros lotus (Date-plum) {Unknown.jpeg} Di…
    ...
    {1.jpg} Diospyros melanoxylon  {images-1.jpeg} Diospyros lotus (Date-plum) {Unknown.jpeg} Diospyros texana
    Diospyros is a genus that includes 500 or so species. Its species consist of a large varitiety of evergreen and deciduous trees. It comes from the Ebenaceae family of flowering plants. These flowering evergreen plants are most commonly known as ebony or persimmon trees.
    ...
    flowering trees. Most species are trees or shrubs that grow up to 600 m above sea level. They require high light to thrive well.
    Geographic Distribution: Most of the Diospyros species are native to the tropics, however some grow in temperate areas. Diospyros species are important to their native ecosystems that include lowland dry tropical forests. Some of the regions Diospyros species are found in are Hawaii, Caspian Hyrcanian forests, Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests, Louisiade Archipelago rain forests, Madagascar forests, Narmada Valley forests, and New Guinea mangroves.
    {map_of_Diospyros_artanthifolia.jpg} Map of Diospyros Regions {map_of_Diospyros_virginiana.jpg} Map of Diospyros Regions
    Chemical Aspects of: When unripe, the fruit of the plants contain a large amount of tannin. Tannin is a bitter plant that tends to shrink or constrict body tissue. It causes the mouth to become dry and constricted therefore people avoid eating unripe fruit from Diospyros plants.
    Human{Tannic_acid_industrial_grade.jpg.gif} Tannic Acid
    Human
    Use and
    ...
    Asian cigarettes.
    Diospyros
    The fruit of the Diospyros lotus known as the date-plum is an edible fruit that contains a large amount of sugars, malic acids, and vitamins. Date-plums are usually dried or frost trapped because in doing so their tartness is destroyed.
    Diospyros
    lotus (Date-plum)
    ...
    The Odyssey: The lotus-eaters are referred to in Greek mythology as a race of people who lived on an island along the coast of North Africa. Lotus-eaters consumed the fruit of the lotus plants which altered their state of mind. The lotus fruit was said to be a narcotic that caused people to fall into a deep sleep of peaceful apathy.
    In the Odyssey, harsh winds blow Odysseus and his ships off course. They end up reaching the land of the lotus-eaters. Some of Odysseus' men eat the delicious lotus fruit which causes them to forget about returning home and instead stay and live among the lotus-eaters.
    "I was driven thence by foul winds for a space of 9 days upon the sea, but on the tenth day we reached the land of the Lotus-eaters, who live on a food that comes from a kind of flower. Here we landed to take in fresh water, and our crews got their mid-day meal on the shore near the ships. When they had eaten and drunk I sent two of my company to see what manner of men the people of the place might be, and they had a third man under them. They started at once, and went about among the Lotus-Eaters, who did them no hurt, but gave them to eat of the lotus, which was so delicious that those who ate of it left off caring about home, and did not even want to go back and say what had happened to them, but were for staying and munching lotus with the Lotus-eaters without thinking further of their return; nevertheless, though they wept bitterly I forced them back to the ships and made them fast under the benches. Then I told the rest to go on board at once, lest any of them should taste of the lotus and leave off wanting to get home, so they took their places and smote the grey sea with their oars."
    There is controversy over which exact 'lotus' the Odyssey refers to to because the Greek word 'lotos' refers to several plants. However one of the proposed species includes the Diospyros lotus, also known as the date-plum. The Diospyros lotus grow sweet edible persimmon fruit called the date-plum. The date-plum is sometimes referred to the "fruit of the gods" or "natures candy."

    (view changes)
    9:30 pm
  7. page Lotus for Maria edited ... Species: Diospyros lotus, Diospyros texana, Diospyros melanoxylon Common Names: Ebony trees, …
    ...
    Species: Diospyros lotus, Diospyros texana, Diospyros melanoxylon
    Common Names: Ebony trees, persimmon trees, lotus trees
    ...
    lotus (Date-plum) {Unknown.jpeg} Diospyros texana
    Diospyros is a genus that includes 500 or so species. Its species consist of a large varitiety of evergreen and deciduous trees. It comes from the Ebenaceae family of flowering plants. These flowering evergreen plants are most commonly known as ebony or persimmon trees.
    Appearance and Properties: Diospyros are mostly deciduous and evergreen flowering trees.
    Geographic Distribution: Most of the Diospyros species are native to the tropics, however some grow in temperate areas. Diospyros species are important to their native ecosystems that include lowland dry tropical forests. Some of the regions Diospyros species are found in are Hawaii, Caspian Hyrcanian forests, Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests, Louisiade Archipelago rain forests, Madagascar forests, Narmada Valley forests, and New Guinea mangroves.
    {map_of_Diospyros_artanthifolia.jpg} Map of Diospyros Regions {map_of_Diospyros_virginiana.jpg} Map of Diospyros Regions
    Chemical Aspects of: When unripe, the fruit of the plants contain a large amount of tannin. Tannin is a bitter plant that tends to shrink or constrict body tissue. It causes the mouth to become dry and constricted therefore people avoid eating unripe fruit from Diospyros plants.
    Human Use and Domestication: When ripe the foliage and fruit of the plants are used as food for several Lepidoptera species that include insects such as moths and butterflies. Humans use such plants commercially as edible fruit or as timber. The leaves of the species Diospyros melanoxylon are used to roll Asian cigarettes.
    (view changes)
    9:04 pm

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